References

  • Barry JP, Buck KR, Lovera CF, Kuhnz L, Whaling PJ, Peltzer ET, Walz P, Brewer PG (2004) Effects of direct ocean CO2 injection on deep-sea meiofauna. Journal of Oceanography 60:759–766.
  • Bell N, Smith J (1999) Coral growing on North Sea oil rigs. Nature 402:601
  • Bohnsack JA, (1990) The potential of marine fishery reserves for reef fish management in the US Southern Atlantic. NOAA. Technical Memo NMFS-SEFC-261. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami
  • Cairns SD (1984) New records of ahermatypic corals (Scleractinia) from the Hawaiian and Line Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 25:1-30
  • Cairns SD (2001) A brief history of taxonomic research on azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 10:191-203
  • Cairns SD (2007) Deep-water corals: an overview with special reference to diversity and distribution of deep-water scleractinian corals. Bulletin of Marine Science, 81:311-322
  • Caldeira K, Wickett ME (2003) Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425:365
  • Chape S, Blyth S, Fish L, Fox P, Spalding M (2003) United Nations List of Protected Areas, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge
  • Davies AJ, Duineveld G, Lavaleye M, Bergman MJ, Van Haren H, Roberts JM (2009) Downwelling and deep-water bottom currents as food supply mechanisms to the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) at the Mingulay Reef Complex. Limnology and Oceanography 54:620–629
  • Davies AJ, Roberts JM, Hall-Spencer J (2007) Preserving deep-sea natural heritage: Emerging issues in offshore conservation and management. Biological Conservation 138:299-312
  • Davies AJ, Wisshak M, Orr CJ, Roberts JM (2008) Predicting suitable habitat for the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia). Deep Sea Res I 55:1048-1062
  • Dodge R, Aller R, Thomsom J (1974) Coral growth related to resuspension of bottom sediments. Nature 247:574- 577
  • Dodge R, Lang J (1983) Environmental correlates of hermatypic coral (Montastrea annularis) growth on the East Flower Gardens Bank, North West Gulf of Mexico. Limnology and Oceanography 28:228-240
  • Fosså JH, Mortensen PB, Furevik DM (2002) The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters: distribution and fishery impacts. Hydrobiologia 471:1-12
  • Freiwald A (2002) Reef-forming cold-water corals. In: Ocean Margin Systems (eds G Wefer, D Billett, D Hebbeln, BB Jørgensen, M Schlüter, TCE van Weering):365-385, Springer Heidelberg
  • Freiwald A, Fosså JH, Grehan A, Koslow T, Roberts JM (2004) Cold-Water Coral Reefs: Out of Sight no longer out of mind. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge
  • Gass SE, Roberts JM (2006) The occurrence of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) on oil and gas platforms in the North Sea: colony growth, recruitment and environmental controls on distribution. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:549–559
  • Gell FR, Roberts CM, (2003) Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18:448–455
  • Glover AG, Smith CR (2003) The deep-sea floor ecosystem: current status and prospects of anthropogenic change by the year 2025. Environmental Conservation 30:219–241
  • Gubbay S (1998) Management of offshore marine protected areas. A report for WWF-UK
  • Guinotte JM, Orr J, Cairns S, Freiwald A, Morgan L, George R (2006) Will human-induced changes in seawater chemistry alter the distribution of deep-sea scleractinian corals? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4:141–146
  • Hovland M, Mortensen PB, Thomsen E, Brattegard, T (1997) Substratum-related ahermatypic coral banks on the Norwegian continental shelf. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama City 2:1203-1206
  • Huvenne VAI, Blondel P, Henriet JP (2002) Textural analysis of sidescan sonar imagery from two mound provinces in the Porcupine Seabight. Marine Geology 189:323-341
  • Keller NB (1976) The deep-sea madreporarian corals of the genus Fungiacyathus from the Kurile-Kamchatka, Aleutian Trenches. Trudy Instituta Okeanologii 99:31-44
  • Kiriakoulakis K, Fisher E, Wolff GA (in press) Lipids and nitrogen isotopes of two deep-water corals from the North-East Atlantic: initial results and implications for their nutrition. In: Cold-water Corals and Ecosystems (eds A Freiwald, JM Roberts), Springer Publishing House, Heidelberg
  • Koslow JA, Boehlert GW, Gordon JDM, Haedrich RL, Lorance P, Parin N (2000) Continental slope and deep-sea fisheries: implications for a fragile ecosystem. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:548-557
  • Levin LA, Etter RJ, Rex MA, Gooday AJ, Smith CR, Pineda J, Stuart CT, Hessler RR, Pawson D (2001) Environmental influences on regional deep-sea species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32:51–93
  • Miller K, Neil H, Tracey Di (2009) Recent advances in deep-sea coral science and emerging links to conservation and management of deep sea ecosystems. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser 397:1-5
  • Mortensen PB (2001) Aquarium observations on the deepwater coral Lophelia pertusa (L., 1758) (Scleractinia) and selected associated invertebrates. Ophelia 54:83-104
  • Probert PK (1999) Seamounts, sanctuaries and sustainability: moving towards deep-sea conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9:601–605
  • Roberts CM (2002) Deep impact: the rising toll of fishing in the deep sea. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17:242-245
  • Roberts JM, Brown CJ, Long D, Bates CR (2005) Acoustic mapping using a multibeam echosounder reveals cold-water coral reefs and surrounding habitats. Coral Reefs 24:654–669
  • Roberts JM, Wheeler AJ, Freiwald A (2006) Reef of the Deep: The Biology and Geology of Cold-Water Coral. Science 312:543-547
  • Roberts JM, Wheeler AJ, Freiwald A, Cairns SD (2009) Cold-water corals: The Biology and Geology of Deep-Sea Coral Habitats. Cambridge University Press Cambridge
  • Rogers AD (1999) The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) and other deep-water reef-forming corals and impacts from human activities. International Review of Hydrobiology 84:315-406
  • Ruhl HA, Smith KL (2004) Shifts in deep-sea community structure linked to climate and food supply. Science 305:513–515
  • Smith KL, Kaufmann RS (1999) Long-term discrepancy between food supply and demand in the deep eastern North Pacific. Science 284:1174–1177
  • Stone RP, Shotwell SK (2007) State of the deep coral ecosystems in the Alaska region: Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands. In the State of Deep coral communities of the U.S. NOAA Technical memorandum:54-108
  • Strømgren T (1971) Vertical and horizontal distribution of Lophelia pertusa (Linné) in Trondheimsfjorden on the west coast of Norway. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 6:1-9
  • Thiem Ø, Ravagnan E, Fosså JH, Berntsen J (2006) Food supply mechanisms for cold water corals along the continental shelf edge. Journal of Marine Systems 60:207-219
  • White M, Mohn C, de Stigter H, Mottram G (2005) Deep-water coral development as a function of hydrodynamics and surface productivity around the submarine banks of the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic. In: Cold-water Corals and Ecosystems (eds A Freiwald, JM Roberts), Springer Publishing House Heidelberg
  • Zibrowius H (1973) Scléractiniaires des Iles Saint Paul et Amsterdam (Sud de l’Océan Indien). Tethys 5:747- 778

Leave a Reply