Environmental Impacts

Environmental threats are those that occur naturally. In this section two natural threats are discussed, grazing by the crown of thorns starfish and disease outbreaks. These both occur naturally, though it is thought that climate change and human activity increase the occurrence of these threats (Birkeland, 1982; Harvell et al., 1999; Dulvy et al., 2004). Other threats such as bleaching and storms could be included in this section, but they were placed under climate change, as the frequency of these, especially bleaching, has rapidly increased which can be directly linked to the change in climate (Hoegh-Guldberg and Salvat, 1995).

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