References

Baker AC, Starger CJ, McClanahan TR, Glynn PW (2004) Coral reefs:  Corals’ adaptive response to climate change. Nature 430: 741 doi:10.1038/430741a

Bard E, Hamelin B, Fairbanks RG and Zindler A (1990) Calibration of the 14C timescale over the past 30,000 years using mass spectrometric U-Th ages from Barbados corals. Nature 345: 405-410 (link)

Barker NHL & Roberts CM (2004) Scuba divining behaviour and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs. Biological Conservation 4:481-489 doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.03.021

Bascompte J, Melia CJ and Sala E (2005) Interaction strength combinations and the overfishingof a marine food web. PNAS 112:5443-5447 doi: 10.1073/pnas.0501562102

Bongiorni L, Shafir S, Angel D, Rinkevich B (2005) Survival, growth and gonad development of two hermatypic corals subjected to in situ fish-farm nutrient enrichment. Marine Ecology Progress Series 253:137-144

Church JA, Godfrey JS, Jackett DR, McDougall TJ (1991) A Model of Sea Level Rise Caused by Ocean Thermal Expansion. Journal of Climate 4:438-456 doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1991)004<0438:AMOSLR>2.0.CO;2

Constanza R, dArge R, de Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, O’Neill RV, Paruelo J, Raskin RG, Sutton P, Belt M (1987) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Naure 387:253-260

Cornish A and Mckellar D (1998) A history if fishing with explosives and poisons in Hong Kong waters. Naga pp 4-9 (link)

Davis GE (2003) Anchor damage to a coral reef on the coast of Florida. Biological Conservation 11:29-34 doi:10.1016/0006-3207(77)90024-6

Dubinsky Z, Stambler N (1996) Marine Pollution and coral reefs. Global change biology 2:511-526 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00064.x

Edonger EN, Jompa J, Limmon GV, Widjatmoko W and Risk MJ (1998) Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in Indonesia: effects of land based pollution, destructive fishing practices and changes over time. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36:617-630 doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00047-2

Fairbank RG (1989) A 17,000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation. Nature 342:637-642 (link)

Glynn PW (2006) Coral reef bleaching:facts, hypotheses and implications. Global change biology 2:495-509 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00063.x

Hawkins JP & Roberts CM (1993) Effects of recreational scuba diving on coral reefs: trampling on reef flat communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 30:25-30 (link)

Hodgson G (1999) A global assessment of human effects on coral reefs. Marine Pollution bulletin 38:345-355 doi: 10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00002-8

Hoegh- Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwrads AJ, Caldeira K, Knowlton N, Eakin CM, Iglesias-Prieto R, Muthiga N, Bradbury RH, Dubi A and Hatziolos ME (2007) Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318:1737-1742 doi: 10.1126/science.1152509

Hingco TG & Rivera R (1991) Aquarium fish industry in the Philippines: Toward development or destruction? ICLARM Conference proceedings. 22:249-253

Hughes TP (1994) Catastrophes, phase shifts and large scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 265:1547-1551 doi: 10.1126/science.265.5178.1547

Hughes TP (2008) Human impacts on reefs: The Great Barrier Reef: biology, environment and management pp 85-94

Kaiser MJ, Attrill MJ, Jennings S, Thomas DN, Barnes DKA, Brierley AS, Polunin NVC, Raffaelli DG, Williams PJleB (2005) Marine Ecology; Processes, Systems and Impacts. Oxford University Press 340-367

Muscatin L and Porter JW (1977) Reef corals: Mutualistic Symbioses Adapted to nutrient poor environments. Bioscience 27:454-460

Nixon SW  (1995) Coastal marine eutrophication: A definition, social causes and future concerns. Ophelia 41: 199-219

Orr JC, Fabry VJ, Aumont O, Bopp L, Doney SC, Feely RA, Gnanadesikan A, Gruber N, Ishida A, Joos F, Key RM, Lindsay K, Maier-Reimer E, Matear R, Monfray P, Mouchet A, Najjar RG, Plattner GK, Rodgers KB, Sabine CL, Sarmiento JL, Schlitzer R, Slater RD, Totterdell IJ, Weirig MF, Yamanaka Y & Yool A (2005) Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437: 681-686 doi:10.1038/nature04095

Pet-Soede L, Cesar HSJ & Pet JS (2000) Blasting away: the economic of blast fishing on Indonesian Coral Reefs. In collected essays on the economics of coral reefs pp75-84 (link)

Roberts CM (1995) Effects of fishing on the ecosystem structure of coral reefs. Conservation Biology 9:988-995 doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.9051332.x-i1

Rouphael T & Inglis G (1995) The effects of qualified recreational SCUBA divers on coral reefs. Tech. Rep. CRC Reef Res. Cent  4:39 (link)

Schleyer MH & Tomalin BJ (2000) Damage on South African coral reefs and an assessment of their sustainable diving capacity using a fisheries approach. Bulletin of Marine Science 67:1025-1042 (link)

Smith SV & Buddemeier RW (1992) Global change and coral reef ecosystems. Animal Review of Ecolgy and systematics 23:89-118 (link)

Villanueva RD, Yap HT and Montano MNE (2005) Survivorship of coral juveniles in a fish farm environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51: 580-589 doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.04.o33

Walther GR, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesank C, Beebee TJC, Fromentin, Hoegh-Guldberg O & Bairlein F (2002) Ecological responses to climate change. Nature 416:389-395 doi:10.1038/416389a

Weeks SJ, Anthiny KRN, Bakun A, Feldman GC, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2008) Improved predictions of coral bleaching using seasonal baselines and higher spatial resolution. Limnology & Oceanography 53:1369-1375 (link)

Wells S, Sheppard V, Van Lavieren H, Barnard N. Kershaw F, Corrgan C, Teleki K, Stock P & Adler E (2008) UNEP-WCMC National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress., UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge. Biodiveristy Studies 30. (link)

Wilkinson C, Souter D (2008). Status of Caribbean coral reefs after bleaching and hurricanes in 2005.Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville. (link)

Figures

Figure 1: ‘Showing the Polyps of a Great Star Coral.’ (downloaded from wiki commons 11/12/10)

Figure 2: ‘A Map to show the global distribution of troical coral reefs’ (downloaded via google images 11/12/10)

Figure 3: ‘A fish farm along an area of coast in the West Indies’ (accessed via google images 12/12/10)

Figure 4:  ‘One of many fish markets in Hong Kong’ Picture taken by Daisie King

Figure 5: Broken Coral on The Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (accessed via google images 15/12/10)

Figure 6: A bleached branching species of coral at the Great Barrier Reef (accessed via google images 15/12/10)

Figure 7: A cartoon representing reasons for MPAs (acxessed via google images 15/12/10)

Figure 8: The Great Barrier Reef; the largest Marine Park in the world (axcessed via google images 15/12/10)

Leave a Reply